## 28 September 2008

### Fast SSE2 pow: tables or polynomials?

We found that for many applications a substantial part of the time spent in software vertex processing was being spend in the powf function. So quite a few of us in Tungsten Graphics have been looking into a faster powf.

## Introduction

The basic way to compute powf(x, y) efficiently is by computing the equivalent exp2(log2(x)*y)) expression, and then fiddle with IEEE 754 floating point exponent to quickly estimate the log2/exp2. This by itself only gives a very coarse approximation. To improve this approximation one has to also look into the mantissa, and then take one of two alternatives: use a lookup table or fit a function like a polynomial.

## Lookup table

See also:

### exp2

```union f4 {
int32_t i;
uint32_t u;
float f;
__m128 m;
__m128i mi;
};

#define EXP2_TABLE_SIZE_LOG2 9
#define EXP2_TABLE_SIZE (1 << EXP2_TABLE_SIZE_LOG2)
#define EXP2_TABLE_OFFSET (EXP2_TABLE_SIZE/2)
#define EXP2_TABLE_SCALE ((float) ((EXP2_TABLE_SIZE/2)-1))

/* 2 ^ x, for x in [-1.0, 1.0[ */
static float exp2_table[2*EXP2_TABLE_SIZE];

void exp2_init(void)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < EXP2_TABLE_SIZE; i++)
exp2_table[i] = (float) pow(2.0, (i - EXP2_TABLE_OFFSET) / EXP2_TABLE_SCALE);
}

/**
* Fast approximation to exp2(x).
* Let ipart = int(x)
* Let fpart = x - ipart;
* So, exp2(x) = exp2(ipart) * exp2(fpart)
* Compute exp2(ipart) with i << ipart
* Compute exp2(fpart) with lookup table.
*/
__m128
exp2f4(__m128 x)
{
__m128i ipart;
__m128 fpart, expipart;
union f4 index, expfpart;

x = _mm_min_ps(x, _mm_set1_ps( 129.00000f));
x = _mm_max_ps(x, _mm_set1_ps(-126.99999f));

/* ipart = int(x) */
ipart = _mm_cvtps_epi32(x);

/* fpart = x - ipart */
fpart = _mm_sub_ps(x, _mm_cvtepi32_ps(ipart));

/* expipart = (float) (1 << ipart) */
expipart = _mm_castsi128_ps(_mm_slli_epi32(_mm_add_epi32(ipart, _mm_set1_epi32(127)), 23));

/* index = EXP2_TABLE_OFFSET + (int)(fpart * EXP2_TABLE_SCALE) */
index.mi = _mm_add_epi32(_mm_cvtps_epi32(_mm_mul_ps(fpart, _mm_set1_ps(EXP2_TABLE_SCALE))), _mm_set1_epi32(EXP2_TABLE_OFFSET));

expfpart.f = exp2_table[index.u];
expfpart.f = exp2_table[index.u];
expfpart.f = exp2_table[index.u];
expfpart.f = exp2_table[index.u];

return _mm_mul_ps(expipart, expfpart.m);
}
```

### log2

```#define LOG2_TABLE_SIZE_LOG2 8
#define LOG2_TABLE_SIZE (1 << LOG2_TABLE_SIZE_LOG2)
#define LOG2_TABLE_SCALE ((float) ((LOG2_TABLE_SIZE)-1))

/* log2(x), for x in [1.0, 2.0[ */
static float log2_table[2*LOG2_TABLE_SIZE];

void log2_init(void)
{
unsigned i;
for (i = 0; i < LOG2_TABLE_SIZE; i++)
log2_table[i] = (float) log2(1.0 + i * (1.0 / (LOG2_TABLE_SIZE-1)));
}

__m128
log2f4(__m128 x)
{
union f4 index, p;

__m128i exp = _mm_set1_epi32(0x7F800000);
__m128i mant = _mm_set1_epi32(0x007FFFFF);

__m128i i = _mm_castps_si128(x);

__m128 e = _mm_cvtepi32_ps(_mm_sub_epi32(_mm_srli_epi32(_mm_and_si128(i, exp), 23), _mm_set1_epi32(127)));

index.mi = _mm_srli_epi32(_mm_and_si128(i, mant), 23 - LOG2_TABLE_SIZE_LOG2);

p.f = log2_table[index.u];
p.f = log2_table[index.u];
p.f = log2_table[index.u];
p.f = log2_table[index.u];

return _mm_add_ps(p.m, e);
}
```

### pow

```static inline __m128
powf4(__m128 x, __m128 y)
{
return exp2f4(_mm_mul_ps(log2f4(x), y));
}
```

## Polynomial

For more details see:

### exp2

```#define EXP_POLY_DEGREE 3

#define POLY0(x, c0) _mm_set1_ps(c0)
#define POLY1(x, c0, c1) _mm_add_ps(_mm_mul_ps(POLY0(x, c1), x), _mm_set1_ps(c0))
#define POLY2(x, c0, c1, c2) _mm_add_ps(_mm_mul_ps(POLY1(x, c1, c2), x), _mm_set1_ps(c0))
#define POLY3(x, c0, c1, c2, c3) _mm_add_ps(_mm_mul_ps(POLY2(x, c1, c2, c3), x), _mm_set1_ps(c0))
#define POLY4(x, c0, c1, c2, c3, c4) _mm_add_ps(_mm_mul_ps(POLY3(x, c1, c2, c3, c4), x), _mm_set1_ps(c0))
#define POLY5(x, c0, c1, c2, c3, c4, c5) _mm_add_ps(_mm_mul_ps(POLY4(x, c1, c2, c3, c4, c5), x), _mm_set1_ps(c0))

__m128 exp2f4(__m128 x)
{
__m128i ipart;
__m128 fpart, expipart, expfpart;

x = _mm_min_ps(x, _mm_set1_ps( 129.00000f));
x = _mm_max_ps(x, _mm_set1_ps(-126.99999f));

/* ipart = int(x - 0.5) */
ipart = _mm_cvtps_epi32(_mm_sub_ps(x, _mm_set1_ps(0.5f)));

/* fpart = x - ipart */
fpart = _mm_sub_ps(x, _mm_cvtepi32_ps(ipart));

/* expipart = (float) (1 << ipart) */
expipart = _mm_castsi128_ps(_mm_slli_epi32(_mm_add_epi32(ipart, _mm_set1_epi32(127)), 23));

/* minimax polynomial fit of 2**x, in range [-0.5, 0.5[ */
#if EXP_POLY_DEGREE == 5
expfpart = POLY5(fpart, 9.9999994e-1f, 6.9315308e-1f, 2.4015361e-1f, 5.5826318e-2f, 8.9893397e-3f, 1.8775767e-3f);
#elif EXP_POLY_DEGREE == 4
expfpart = POLY4(fpart, 1.0000026f, 6.9300383e-1f, 2.4144275e-1f, 5.2011464e-2f, 1.3534167e-2f);
#elif EXP_POLY_DEGREE == 3
expfpart = POLY3(fpart, 9.9992520e-1f, 6.9583356e-1f, 2.2606716e-1f, 7.8024521e-2f);
#elif EXP_POLY_DEGREE == 2
expfpart = POLY2(fpart, 1.0017247f, 6.5763628e-1f, 3.3718944e-1f);
#else
#error
#endif

return _mm_mul_ps(expipart, expfpart);
}
```

### log2

```#define LOG_POLY_DEGREE 5

__m128 log2f4(__m128 x)
{
__m128i exp = _mm_set1_epi32(0x7F800000);
__m128i mant = _mm_set1_epi32(0x007FFFFF);

__m128 one = _mm_set1_ps( 1.0f);

__m128i i = _mm_castps_si128(x);

__m128 e = _mm_cvtepi32_ps(_mm_sub_epi32(_mm_srli_epi32(_mm_and_si128(i, exp), 23), _mm_set1_epi32(127)));

__m128 m = _mm_or_ps(_mm_castsi128_ps(_mm_and_si128(i, mant)), one);

__m128 p;

/* Minimax polynomial fit of log2(x)/(x - 1), for x in range [1, 2[ */
#if LOG_POLY_DEGREE == 6
p = POLY5( m, 3.1157899f, -3.3241990f, 2.5988452f, -1.2315303f,  3.1821337e-1f, -3.4436006e-2f);
#elif LOG_POLY_DEGREE == 5
p = POLY4(m, 2.8882704548164776201f, -2.52074962577807006663f, 1.48116647521213171641f, -0.465725644288844778798f, 0.0596515482674574969533f);
#elif LOG_POLY_DEGREE == 4
p = POLY3(m, 2.61761038894603480148f, -1.75647175389045657003f, 0.688243882994381274313f, -0.107254423828329604454f);
#elif LOG_POLY_DEGREE == 3
p = POLY2(m, 2.28330284476918490682f, -1.04913055217340124191f, 0.204446009836232697516f);
#else
#error
#endif

/* This effectively increases the polynomial degree by one, but ensures that log2(1) == 0*/
p = _mm_mul_ps(p, _mm_sub_ps(m, one));

return _mm_add_ps(p, e);
}
```

## Results

The accuracy vs speed for several table sizes and polynomial degrees can be seen in the chart below. The difference is not much, but the polynomial approach outperforms the table approach for any desired precision. This was for 32bit generated code in a Core 2. If generating 64bit code, the difference between the two is bigger. The performance of the table approach will also tend to degrade when other computation is going on at the same time, as the likelihood the lookup tables get trashed out of the cache is higher. So by all accounts, the polynomial approach seems a safer bet.

## 13 September 2008

### Tracing Gallium3D

One nice thing about Gallium3D is that it provides a clean cut abstraction of (modern) 3D graphics hardware. The purpose of this abstraction is to allow a single hardware driver to target different graphic APIs (OpenGL, D3D, etc.). That is, one pipe driver for many state trackers. But with this abstraction in place it opens the doors to other interesting things, unthinkable until now. Namely, by intercepting the calls between the state tracker and the pipe driver one could:

• in a debugging scenario, capture the calls of an application known to cause problems to a file and analyze it, replay it in order to isolate the bug;
• in a virtual machine scenario, capture all calls done inside a virtual machine and replay them in the host machine;
• in a performance analysis scenario, compute memory/performance statistics in a per-call/resource;
• etc.

Having an itch to scratch I started tackling the former, i.e., tracing Gallium3D for debugging purposes. Actually, an itch is an understatement, it is a rash named XP Direct3D. XP Direct3D driver model is in kernel space, and the build -> reboot -> upload driver -> test application cycle takes me between 5 and 10 min depending of the application. While in Linux building and testing from a NFS share takes me less than 1min. Recording a D3D application in XP and replay and debugging it on Linux would boost my productivity by 5 to 10 times. This assuming that the bug is on the pipe driver and not on the state tracker, which tends to be the case now that our state trackers are quite mature.

Using the learned lessons from my previous experiment of tracing D3D applications I wrote a pipe driver which traces all state tracker -> pipe driver interface calls to a XML file, and after an application written in Python to replay that file (using the Gallium3D Python bindings). I chose a semantically rich XML as trace format so that the trace dumps are cross-platform and can at least survive minor interface changes such as addition/removal of state objects members, format renumbering, etc. This way traces can be also used for regression testing. Nevertheless the code is structured in such way that a space-efficient binary format is also possible in the future with minor changes.

Here is softpipe replaying a trace captured from trace of Mesa's gloss demo (also recorded on Linux). Simple apps are capture/replayed (e.g., progs/trivial/*, progs/demos/gloss, and many D3D DirectX SDK examples), but big applications like 3DMark05 produce over 10GB of trace data before reaching the first frame, and I run out of disk space or patience before that. Also, some minor glitches in the interfaces prevent are causing some state to leak behind our back. So the next steps are to allow to capture a single arbitrary frame, improve trace format space efficiency, and trim the interface corners.

In case anybody gets interested, there are several README files in Mesa's git explaining how to use.

## 04 September 2008

### Learning and testing Gallium3D with Python

Gallium3D interfaces don't match any particular graphics API 1 to 1. Likewise, conformance tests end up not doing a good coverage of Gallium3D's interface either: sometimes a single Gallium3D feature is tested in many different tests; sometimes a feature ends up not being exercised by any test, so bugs are only detected in applications, where they are much harder to narrow down. And so appeared the need to write some tests at the Gallium3D interface level.

Since the ability to write tests quickly was important, and the running speed not so important, I've decided to write a Python bindings, so that tests could be scripted in Python. These bindings wrap around the pipe driver, so that they look like a pipe driver from the Python script point of view, and look like a state tracker from the pipe driver point of view.

About the tests there is not much to write about yet. I wrote tests for texture formats that allowed to squash the bugs I was searching for, and I imagine that more tests will be added as needs justify it.

However, having a Gallium3D bindings in Python opens several doors. One particularly is that it becomes a nice sandbox to learn Gallium3D. For example. here is the code to draw a single triangle:

```def test(dev):
ctx = dev.context_create()

width = 255
height = 255

# disabled blending/masking
blend = Blend()
blend.rgb_src_factor = PIPE_BLENDFACTOR_ONE
blend.alpha_src_factor = PIPE_BLENDFACTOR_ONE
blend.rgb_dst_factor = PIPE_BLENDFACTOR_ZERO
blend.alpha_dst_factor = PIPE_BLENDFACTOR_ZERO
blend.colormask = PIPE_MASK_RGBA
ctx.set_blend(blend)

# no-op depth/stencil/alpha
depth_stencil_alpha = DepthStencilAlpha()
ctx.set_depth_stencil_alpha(depth_stencil_alpha)

# rasterizer
rasterizer = Rasterizer()
rasterizer.front_winding = PIPE_WINDING_CW
rasterizer.cull_mode = PIPE_WINDING_NONE
rasterizer.bypass_clipping = 1
rasterizer.scissor = 1
#rasterizer.bypass_vs = 1
ctx.set_rasterizer(rasterizer)

# viewport (identity, we setup vertices in wincoords)
viewport = Viewport()
scale = FloatArray(4)
scale = 1.0
scale = 1.0
scale = 1.0
scale = 1.0
viewport.scale = scale
translate = FloatArray(4)
translate = 0.0
translate = 0.0
translate = 0.0
translate = 0.0
viewport.translate = translate
ctx.set_viewport(viewport)

# samplers
sampler = Sampler()
sampler.wrap_s = PIPE_TEX_WRAP_CLAMP_TO_EDGE
sampler.wrap_t = PIPE_TEX_WRAP_CLAMP_TO_EDGE
sampler.wrap_r = PIPE_TEX_WRAP_CLAMP_TO_EDGE
sampler.min_mip_filter = PIPE_TEX_MIPFILTER_NONE
sampler.min_img_filter = PIPE_TEX_MIPFILTER_NEAREST
sampler.mag_img_filter = PIPE_TEX_MIPFILTER_NEAREST
sampler.normalized_coords = 1
ctx.set_sampler(0, sampler)

# scissor
scissor = Scissor()
scissor.minx = 0
scissor.miny = 0
scissor.maxx = width
scissor.maxy = height
ctx.set_scissor(scissor)

clip = Clip()
clip.nr = 0
ctx.set_clip(clip)

# framebuffer
cbuf = dev.texture_create(
PIPE_FORMAT_X8R8G8B8_UNORM,
width, height,
tex_usage=PIPE_TEXTURE_USAGE_DISPLAY_TARGET,
)
_cbuf = cbuf.get_surface(usage = PIPE_BUFFER_USAGE_GPU_READ|PIPE_BUFFER_USAGE_GPU_WRITE)
fb = Framebuffer()
fb.width = width
fb.height = height
fb.num_cbufs = 1
fb.set_cbuf(0, _cbuf)
ctx.set_framebuffer(fb)
_cbuf.clear_value = 0x00000000
ctx.surface_clear(_cbuf, _cbuf.clear_value)
del _cbuf

# vertex shader
vs = Shader('
VERT1.1
DCL IN, POSITION, CONSTANT
DCL IN, COLOR, CONSTANT
DCL OUT, POSITION, CONSTANT
DCL OUT, COLOR, CONSTANT
0:MOV OUT, IN
1:MOV OUT, IN
2:END
')
ctx.set_vertex_shader(vs)

# fragment shader
fs = Shader('
FRAG1.1
DCL IN, COLOR, LINEAR
DCL OUT, COLOR, CONSTANT
0:MOV OUT, IN
1:END
')
ctx.set_fragment_shader(fs)

nverts = 3
nattrs = 2
verts = FloatArray(nverts * nattrs * 4)

verts[ 0] = 128.0 # x1
verts[ 1] =  32.0 # y1
verts[ 2] =   0.0 # z1
verts[ 3] =   1.0 # w1
verts[ 4] =   1.0 # r1
verts[ 5] =   0.0 # g1
verts[ 6] =   0.0 # b1
verts[ 7] =   1.0 # a1
verts[ 8] =  32.0 # x2
verts[ 9] = 224.0 # y2
verts =   0.0 # z2
verts =   1.0 # w2
verts =   0.0 # r2
verts =   1.0 # g2
verts =   0.0 # b2
verts =   1.0 # a2
verts = 224.0 # x3
verts = 224.0 # y3
verts =   0.0 # z3
verts =   1.0 # w3
verts =   0.0 # r3
verts =   0.0 # g3
verts =   1.0 # b3
verts =   1.0 # a3

ctx.draw_vertices(PIPE_PRIM_TRIANGLES,
nverts,
nattrs,
verts)

ctx.flush()
```

And this is the result: In summary, you create several state atoms, bind them to the context, and then send the geometry through the pipe driver. Full source available in Mesa3D's git repository.

To use Gallium3D's Python bindings follow these instructions.

BTW, XDS 2008 is happening now. Too bad I couldn't go this year, as I would like to meet everybody. I hope you're having a great time!